Acronyms - The Alphabet Soup
| People involved in marine resource issues use various shorthand phrases to describe organizations, committees, and programs with long names. Here is UASC's guide to fishery management acronyms and what they mean to normal people. |
ABC Allowable (or Acceptable) Biological Catch. A term used by a management agency which refers to the range of allowable catch for a species or species group. It is set each year by a scientific group created by the management agency. The agency then takes the ABC estimate and sets the annual total allowable catch (TAC).
Acceptable Biological Catch See ABC.
ADFG Alaska Department of Fish & Game
AFL-CIO American Federation of Labor - Congress of Industrial Organizations
AFSC Alaska Fisheries Science Center (a division of the National Marine Fisheries Service)
AGM Alternative Groundfish Management Committee. (A PFMC committee) AP Advisory Panel
APDT Anchovy Plan Development Team (obsolete)
AIDCP Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program
ATCA Atlantic Tunas Convention Act
APA Administrative Procedures Act
ASA American Sportfishing Association; the largest association representing fishing tackle manufacturers.
BA Biological Assessment
Biomass The total weight of a group (or stock) of fish. The term biomass means total biomass (age one and above) unless stated otherwise.
Blocked quota shares Quota shares that must be transferred together, and cannot be subdivided.
BLM Bureau of Land Management
BMP Best Management Practices
BO Biological Opinion. A scientific assessment issued by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Click here for the biological opinion on steller sea lions.
BOR U.S. Bureau of Reclamation
BPA Bonneville Power Administration
Bycatch Fish that are harvested in a fishery, but are not sold or kept for personal use. This does not include fish released alive under a recreational catch-and-release program. [Some or all bycatch may be returned to the sea as discards, usually dead or dying.] This is different than incidental catch, where fish are retained.
CAGEAN Catch at age analysis. Data on the number of fish of each age group or class in the catch taken from one stock by a fishery, obtained from age-readings of fish in representative samples of the catch.
California Bight The region of concave coastline off Southern California between the headland at Point Conception and the U.S./Mexican border, and encompassing various islands, shallow banks, basins and troughs extending from the coast roughly 200 km offshore.
CalCOFI California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations
CAM Coho Assessment Model
CANSAR-TAM Catch-at-age Analysis for Sardine - Two Area Model (see CAGEAN)
CBFWA Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority
CCA Cowcod Conservation Area
CCAMLR Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
CCC Central California coast (coho)
CDFG California Department of Fish & Game
CDQ Community development quota. A percentage of fishery quotas allocated to particular communities. For example, the Western Alaska Community Development Quota Program allocates a percentage of all Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands quotas for groundfish, prohibited species, halibut, and crab to eligible communities. The purpose of the Alaska CDQ Program is to provide the means for starting or supporting commercial fisheries business activities that will result in an ongoing, regionally based, fisheries-related economy in Western Alaska. (NMFS)
Cetaceans Marine mammals of the Order Cetacea. Includes whales, dolphins and porpoises.
CERT Community Economic Revitalization Team
CFR Code of Federal Regulations. The CFR is a codification of the regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Title 50 contains wildlife and fisheries regulations.
CFRD Coastal Fisheries Resources Division
CFS Cubic feet per second
CFZ Contiguous Fishery Zone. The area from 3 to 12 miles offshore.
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
CINMS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary
CINMSP Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Program
CMC Center for Marine Conservation (now the Ocean Conservancy); an East Coast based advocacy group.
Cod-end The end of a trawl net which retains the catch. This is the part of the net where most size-selection takes place. Cod-end mesh sizes and structure (including shaffers) are usually regulated and may be preceded by a sorting grid to reduce by-catch.
COE Army Corps of Engineers
Cohort In a stock, a group of fish generated during the same spawning season and born during the same time period. Also, in cold and temperate areas, where fish are long-lived, a cohort corresponds usually to fish born during the same year (a year class). For instance, the 1987 cohort would refer to fish that are age 0 in 1987, age 1 in 1988, and so on.
Commercial fishing Fishing in which the fish harvested, either whole or in part, are intended to enter commerce through sale, barter, or trade.
COMPASS Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea
COP Council Operating Procedures Council Pacific Fishery Management Council
CPFD Catch per fishing day
CPFV Commercial passenger fishing vessel
CPS Coastal Pelagic Species. Coastal pelagic species are schooling fish, not associated with the ocean bottom, that migrate in coastal waters. Examples are herring, squid, anchovy, sardine, and mackerel.
CPSAS Coastal Pelagic Species Advisory Subpanel
CPSMT Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team
CPSPDT Coastal Pelagic Species Plan Development Team
CPUE Catch per unit of effort. The quantity of fish caught (in number or in weight) with one standard unit of fishing effort; e.g. number of fish taken per 1000 hooks per day or weight of fish, in tons, taken per hour of trawling. CPUE is often considered an index of fish biomass (or abundance). Sometimes referred to as catch rate. CPUE may be used as a measure of economic efficiency of fishing as well as an index of fish abundance. Also called: catch per effort, fishing success, availability.
CRFMP Columbia River Fishery Management Plan
CRITFC Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission
CRP Conservation Reserve Program
CRR Cohort replacement rate (see cohort). The cohort replacement rate describes the rate at which each subsequent cohort, or generation, replaces the previous one.
CRTAC Columbia River Technical Advisory Committee
CSC California Sportfishing Coalition; a Political Action Committee representing California tackle dealers and recreational anglers.
Cumulative limit The total allowable amount of a species or species group, by weight, that a vessel may take and retain, possess, or land during a period of time. Fishers may take as many landings of a species or species complex as they like as long as they do not exceed the cumulative limit that applies to the vessel or permit during the designated period.
Cumulative limit stacking Connecting cumulative limits to permits, rather than to vessels. This allows a vessel with multiple limited entry permits to harvest multiple cumulative limits. This is also referred to as "permit stacking."
CV Coefficient of variation
CVI Central Valley Index
CVPIA Central Valley Project Improvement Act
CWA Clean Water Act
CWP Central-western Pacific
CWT Coded-wire tag. Coded Wire Tags are small pieces of stainless steel wire that are injected into the snouts of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Each tag is etched with a binary code that identifies its release group. (Alaska Dept. of Fish & Game)
CYRA Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission yellowfin regulatory area CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act. The main objective of the CZMA is to encourage and assist states in developing coastal zone management programs, to coordinate state activities, and to safeguard the regional and national interests in the coastal zone. It requires that any federal activity (including fishery management regulations) directly affecting the coastal zone of a state be consistent with that state's approved coastal zone management program, since activities that take place beyond the territorial sea may affect the coastal zone.
DAH (Expected) domestic annual harvest. The domestic annual fishing capacity, modified by other factors (such as economic factors), which will determine estimates of what the fleets will harvest. DAP (Expected) domestic annual processing. The amount that will be domestically processed, based not only on physical capacity but on a demonstrated intent and the effects of domestic harvesting, markets, and other fisheries. DEIS Draft Environmental Impact Statement Demersal Living in close relation with the sea floor. (Pronounced "deMERsal"). DEPM Daily egg production method Derby fishery A fishery of a few days' or weeks' duration during which fishers race to take as much catch as they can before the fishery closes. Also see Modified Derby. DFG Department of Fish and Game; the state of California's department that is tasked with management and enforcement responsibilities. DFO (Canada) Department of Fisheries and Oceans DFOP Detailed Fishery Operating Plan DFW Department of Fish and Wildlife DGN Drift gillnet DOC Department of Commerce. Parent organization of the National Marine Fisheries Service. DOI Department of the Interior. Parent organization of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. DOS U.S. Department of State DOJ Department of Justice. DOJ attorneys represent the Secretary of Commerce and the councils in litigation on fishery management plans. DOM Domestic catch. DTS Dover sole/thornyhead/trawl-caught sablefish complex
EA Environmental Assessment. As part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, an EA is a concise public document that provides evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). EC Enforcement consultants EDCP Enhanced Data Collection Project EDF Environmental Defense Fund EDM Estimated discard mortality. Estimates of discards can be made in a variety of ways, including samples from observers and logbook records. Fish (or parts of fish) can be discarded for a variety of reasons such as having physical damage, being a non-target species for the trip, and compliance with management regulations like minimum size limits or quotas. EEZ Exclusive economic zone. A zone under national jurisdiction (up to 200-nautical miles wide) declared in line with the provisions of 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, within which the coastal State has the right to explore and exploit, and the responsibility to conserve and manage, the living and non-living resources. EFH Essential Fish Habitat EFIN Economic Fishery Information Network EFP Exempted (or experimental, depending on context) fishing permit EIR Environmental Impact Review EIA Environmental Impact Assessment. A set of activities designed to identify and predict the impacts of a proposed action on the environment and on human health and well being, and to interpret and communicate information about the impacts, including mitigation measures that are likely to eliminate the risks. EIS Environmental Impact Statement. An analysis of the expected impacts resulting from the implementation of a fisheries management or development plan (or some other proposed action) on the environment. EISs are required for all fishery management plans as well as significant amendments to existing plans. The purpose of an EIS is to ensure that the fishery management plan gives appropriate consideration to environmental values in order to prevent harm to the environment. Endorsement A designation on a limited entry permit that authorizes the use of the permit for a particular gear, length of vessel, or in a particular segment of the fishery. ENSO El Niño Southern Oscillation. Abnormally warm ocean climate conditions, which in some years affect the Eastern coast of Latin America (centered on Peru) often around Christmas time. The anomaly is accompanied by dramatic changes in species abundance and distribution, higher local rainfall and flooding, massive deaths of fish and their predators (including birds). Many other climatic anomalies around the world (e.g. draughts, floods, forest fires,) are attributed to consequences of El Niño. EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency Epipelagic The vertical habitat within the upper water column from the surface to depths generally not more than approximately 200 meters, i.e. above the mesopelagic zone. EPO Eastern Pacific Ocean ESA Endangered Species Act. The ESA provides for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and birds. When preparing fishery management plans, councils are required to consult with the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to determine whether the fishing under a fishery management plan is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species, or to result in harm to its critical habitat. Escapement The number or proportion of fish surviving (escaping from) a given fishery at the end of the fishing season and reaching the spawning grounds. Term generally used for anadromous fish management (e.g. on salmon) but also for some squid fisheries. ESP Especially ESU Evolutionarily Significant Unit. An Evolutionarily Significant Unit or "ESU" is a distinctive group of Pacific salmon, Steelhead, or, sea-run cutthroat trout that is uniquely adapted to a particular area or environment and cannot be replaced. ETP Eastern tropical Pacific EY Equilibrium yield. The harvest that would maintain a stock at its current level, apart from the effects of environmental conditions.
F Fishing mortality rate F & GC Fish and Game Commission for the state of California. A panel appointed by the governor that oversees the DFG and resource issues. FACA Federal Authority Committee Act. Since the passage of the 1984 amendment to the Magnuson Act, the provisions of the FACA no longer apply to the Council, Scientific and Statistical Committee, and advisory entities. Far offshore All waters beyond the EEZ of the United States and beyond any foreign nation's EEZ, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States. FAD Fish aggregating devices. Artificial or natural floating objects placed on the ocean surface, often anchored to the bottom, to attract several schooling fish species underneath, thus increasing their catchability. FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FCRA Federal Credit Reform Act FCZ Fishery conservation zone. The area over which the U.S. asserts exclusive fishery management authority. The FCZ extends from the seaward boundary of the coastal states' territorial seas to 200 nautical miles from the baseline where the territorial sea is measured (roughly, 3 to 200 miles offshore). Similar to the EEZ, or Exclusive Economic Zone. FEAM Fishery economic assessment model FEMAT Federal Ecosystem Management Assessment Team FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFA (South Pacific) Forum Fishery Agency Fish stock The living resources in the community or population from which catches are taken in a fishery. Use of the term "fish stock" usually implies that the particular population is more or less isolated from other stocks of the same species, and hence self-sustaining. Fishery Management Area The EEZ off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California between 3 and 200 nautical miles offshore, bounded in the north by the boundary between the United States and Canada, and bounded in the south by the boundary between the United States and Mexico. See EEZ, FCZ. Fishing The catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; the attempted catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; any other activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; any operations at sea in support of, or in preparation for, any of these activities. This term does not include any activity by a vessel conducting authorized scientific research. Fixed gear Within the context of the limited entry fleet, "fixed gear" means longline and fishpot gear. Within the context of the entire groundfish fishery, fixed gear includes longline, fishpot, and any other gear that is anchored at least at one end. FL Fork length. A measurement used frequently for fish length when the tail has a fork shape. Projected straight distance between the tip of the fish and the fork of the tail. fm Fathom FMA Fishery management area (see above) FMC Fishery Management Council. A fisheries management body established by the Fisheries Conservation and Management Act to manage fishery resources in designated regions of the United States. Membership varies in size depending on the number of states involved. Eight regional councils exist. FMP Fishery Management Plan. A plan, and its amendments, that contains measures for conserving and managing specific fisheries. FOIA Freedom of Information Act. The FOIA provides for public access to records of the Executive Branch of the federal government and to records generated at the request of the federal government. Nine exceptions are provided which allow the withholding of information. FONSI Finding of no significant impact. As part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, a FONSI is a document that explains why an action that is not otherwise excluded from the NEPA process, and for which an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared, will not have a significant effect on the human environment. FR Federal Register FRAM Fishery Regulation Assessment Model FRO Fishery resource office FTE Full time employee FWS Fish and Wildlife Service
GAO General Accounting Office GAP Groundfish Advisory Subpanel. The Council established the GAP to obtain the input of the people most affected by, or interested in, the management of the groundfish fishery. Their advice is solicited when preparing fishery management plans, reviewing plans before sending them to the Secretary, and reviewing the effectiveness of plans once they are in operation. GCG Gene Conservation Group. A genetically distinct group within a species that forms when a group does not mix with other populations of the same species. GDP Gross Domestic Product Gear conflict Any incident at sea involving one or more fishing vessels in which one fishing vessel or its gear comes into contact with another vessel or its gear, and that results in the loss of, or damage to, a fishing vessel, gear or catch. GFSP Groundfish Fishery Strategic Plan GIFA Governing International Fishery Agreement. Foreign vessels fishing within the fishery conservation zone must have a permit issued by the Secretary of Commerce. In order to receive a permit, each foreign nation must enter into a formal GIFA which binds them to comply with U.S. regulations and allows for vessel inspection and enforcement of regulations. GIS Geographic Information System GMT Groundfish Management Team. Groundfish management plans are prepared by the Council's GMT, which consists of scientists with specific knowledge of the groundfish fishery. GNP Gross national product GSA General Services Administration GSG Groundfish Select Group (a PFMC subgroup) GSI Genetic stock identification. A method of analyzing stock composition.
Hail Weight A fisher's estimate of the weight of fish a vessel will be landing on a particular day. HAPC Habitat areas of particular concern Harvest guidelines A numerical harvest level that is a general objective and is not a quota. Attainment of a harvest guideline does not require a management response, but it does prompt review of the fishery. HAS Halibut Advisory Subpanel (a panel of the PFMC) HCP Habitat Conservation Plan HG Harvest Guidelines Harvesting vessel A vessel involved in attempting to or actually catching, taking or harvesting fish, or any activity that can reasonably be expected to result in catching, taking or harvesting fish. Highly migratory species In the Council context, highly migratory species in the Pacific Ocean include species managed under the HMS Fishery Management Plan: tunas (north Pacific albacore, yellowfin tuna, bigeye tuna, skipjack tuna, and northern bluefin tuna); sharks (common thresher, pelagic thresher, bigeye thresher, shortfin mako, and blue); billfish/swordfish (striped marlin, swordfish); and dorado or dolphinfish. High seas All waters beyond the EEZ of the United States and beyond any foreign nation's EEZ, to the extent that such sea is recognized by the United States. HMG Halibut Managers Group (a subgroup of the PFMC) HMS Highly Migratory Species (see above) HMSAS Highly Migratory Species Plan Development Team HMS FMP Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan. This is the fishery management plan (and its subsequent revisions) for the Washington, Oregon and California Highly Migratory Species Fisheries developed by the PFMC and approved by the Secretary of Commerce. HMSAS Highly Migratory Species Advisory Subpanel. This panel is composed of members of the fishing industry and the public, appointed by the Council to review proposed actions for managing the highly migratory species fisheries. HMSMT Highly Migratory Species Management Team. The people appointed by the Council to review, analyze, and develop management measures for the HMS fishery. HRM Harvest Rate Model HSFCA High Seas Fishing Compliance Act
IATTC Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission ICCAT International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas ICES International Convention for the Exploration of the Sea IDCPA International Dolphin Conservation Program Act IFQ Individual fishing quota. See ITQ. IMPLAN IMpact Analysis for PLANning - a regional economic impact model Incidental catch Species caught and retained while fishing for a different species (this differs from bycatch, where fish are discarded at sea). Incidental take The take of marine mammals, sea turtles, or sea birds during fishing. INMARSAT International Marine Satellite (an at-sea communication system) INPFC International North Pacific Fishery Commission. Created by the International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries in 1952, the INPFC (headquartered in Vancouver, BC) is made up of the U.S., Canada, and Japan. While the major thrust of the International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries is to restrict the high seas salmon fisheries pursued by the Japanese, it is also a mechanism for international scientific research for other North Pacific stocks such as groundfish. Each national section is composed of four commissioners who are assisted by technical experts and advisors. IPA Intergovernmental Personnel Act IPHC International Pacific Halibut Commission. The "Halibut Commission" was established by treaty between Canada and the U.S. in 1923. In 1953, a new treaty was signed and the current name was adopted. The Commission is located in Seattle. It is responsible for studying halibut stocks and the halibut fishery, and makes proposals to the U.S. and Canada concerning the regulation of the halibut fishery. IPOA International Plan of Action IQ Individual quota. A quota (possibly a percentage) of a total allowable catch assigned to an individual, a vessel or a company. If an individual quota is transferable it is referred to as an Individual Transferable Quota (ITQ). IRFA Initial regulatory flexibility analysis ISC Interim Scientific Committee ITQ Individual Transferable (or Tradable) Quota. A type of quota (a part of a Total Allowable Catch) allocated to individual fishermen or vessel owners and which can be sold to others.
JV Joint venture JVP (Expected) joint venture processing capacity. The amount of expected domestic annual harvest which will not be utilized by domestic processors (JVP = DAH - DAP).
KFMC Klamath Fishery Management Council KMZ Klamath management zone (ocean zone between Humbug Mountain and Horse Mountain where management emphasis is on Klamath River fall chinook) KOHM Klamath Ocean Harvest Model KRSMG Klamath River Salmon Management Group KRTAT Klamath River Technical Advisory Team
LE Limited entry (see below) Length requirement The requirement that specifies that permits may not be registered for use with vessels more than 5 feet longer (in overall length) than the length endorsed on the permit. LFI Lyons Ferry age three/four fall chinook index Limited entry fishery A fishery made up of vessels fishing with limited entry permits. Local depletion Local depletion occurs when localized catches take more fish than can be replaced either locally or through fish migrating into the catch area. Local depletion can occur apart from the status of the overall stock, and can be greater than decreases in the entire stock. LOS Law of the Sea LP Linear programming LRH Lower river hatchery (tule fall chinook returning to hatcheries below Bonneville Dam) LRW Lower Columbia River wild (bright fall chinook spawning naturally below Bonneville Dam) LWD Large woody debris
M Natural mortality Magnuson-Stevens Act Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Marine Reserve A "no take" California MPA. MAX CAT Maximum Allowable Catch Maximum sustainable yield. See MSY. mb Megabyte MBTA Migratory Bird Treaty Act MCA Marine Conservation Area (marine protected area with limited recreational/commercial fishing). MCB Mid-Columbia River brights (bright hatchery fall chinook released in the mid-Columbia River) MERRP Marine Ecological Reserves Research Program Mesopelagic The verticalhabitat within the mid-depth ocean water column, from depths between 200 and 1000 meters, i.e. below the epipelagic zone. MFCMA Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act was renamed the "Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act" in 1980. The MFCMA established the 200-mile fishery conservation zone and the regional fishery management council system. MFMT Maximum fishing mortality threshold MHLC Multilateral High-Level Conference for Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Species of the Central and Western Pacific MLMA Marine Life Management Act (California law that mandates the use of fishery management plans to enable the FGC to manage California's fisheries. It is the State equivalent of the federal MSFMA. MLPA Marine Life Protection Act - California law to "improve" marine reserves. MMPA Marine Mammal Protection Act. The MMPA prohibits the harvest of marine mammals, although permits for incidental take of marine mammals while commercial fishing may be issued subject to regulation. With the passage of the Magnuson Act, the moratorium on the taking of marine mammals became effective in the fishery conservation zone and applied to foreign as well as domestic fishing. MOA Memorandum of Agreement MOC Mid-Oregon coast Modified derby A derby fishery in which each vessel has a landing permit. A derby is a fishery of a few days' or weeks' duration, during which fishers race to take as much catch as they can before the fishery closes. Under the modified derby, the catch of some vessels is constrained by the landing limit, while the catch of other vessels is constrained by the duration of the fishery. For vessels in the latter situation, the modified derby functions the same as a derby. Mop-up fishery When the modified derby portion of a fishery is completed, any remaining portion of the target harvest level is made available during a season called a "mop-up" fishery. As in the primary fishery, only endorsed vessels may participate. The mop-up fishery is generally managed using cumulative limits of two weeks to one month in duration. MOU Memorandum of Understanding MPA Marine Protected Area. An area with restricted take. In California, there are three types of MPA's; Marine Parks, Marine Conservation Areas, and Marine Reserves. MPRSA Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act. The MPRSA authorizes the Secretary of Commerce (with Presidential approval) to designate ocean marine sanctuaries. MRFSS Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey MSFCMA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act MSST Maximum stock size threshold MSY Maximum sustainable yield. The largest average catch or yield that can continuously be taken from a stock under existing environmental conditions. For species with fluctuating recruitment, the maximum might be obtained by taking fewer fish in some years than in others. Also called: maximum equilibrium catch (MEC); maximum sustained yield; sustainable catch. mt Metric ton. 2,204.62 pounds. MUS Management unit species
NA Not available NBS National Bureau of Standards NEPA National Environmental Policy Act. "The purposes of this Act are: To declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation; and to establish a Council on Environmental Quality." Neritic Inhabiting coastal waters primarily over the continental shelf, generally over bottom depths equal to or less than 183 meters (100 fm) deep. NEV Net economic value(s) NGO Non-governmental organization NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service. A division of the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NMFS is responsible for conservation and management of offshore fisheries (and inland salmon). The NMFS regional director is a voting member of the Council. NMFS NWR National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Region NMSA National Marine Sanctuaries Act NNB Net national benefits NOAA National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration NOC North Oregon coast Nontrawl Within the context of the groundfish limited fleet, "nontrawl" and "fixed gear" are the same, i.e. longline and fishpot gear. Within the context of the entire groundfish fishery, nontrawl gear includes longline, fishpot, and any other gear that is not trawl gear (troll, gillnet, vertical hook-and-line, etc.). NORPAC North Pacific Database Program NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPFMC North Pacific Fishery Management Council. The NPFMC consists of the state of Alaska, with representation by Washington and Oregon. It has authority over fisheries in the 3-200 mile zone in the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and Pacific Ocean seaward of Alaska. NPOA National Plan of Action NPPA Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980 NPPC Northwest Power Planning Council NPTZ North Pacific transition zone NRC Natural Resource Consultants NRCS Natural Resource Conservation Service NRDC National Resource Defense Council; an East Coast based advocacy group. NS National Standards (of the Magnuson-Stevens Act) NSF National Science Foundation NURP National Undersea Research Program NWAFC Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center NWIFC Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission
OA Open access. A condition of a fishery in which anyone who wishes to fish may do so. OC Oregon coast (coho) Oceanic Inhabiting the open sea, ranging beyond the continental and insular shelves, beyond the neritic zone. OCN Oregon coastal natural (coho) OCNL Oregon coastal natural (coho) lake component OCNR Oregon coastal natural (coho) river component ODFW Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife OMB Office of Management and Budget OPAC Ocean Policy Advisory Council Open-Access Fishery The segment of the groundfish fishery or any other fishery for which entry is not controlled by a limited entry program. OPI Oregon Production Index. The OPI is used as a measure of the annual abundance of adult three-year-old coho salmon resulting from production in the Columbia River and Oregon coastal hatcheries and streams. The index itself is simply the combined number of adult coho that can be accounted for within the general area from Ilwaco, WA to as far south as coho are found. More specifically, it is the sum of 1) ocean sport and troll catches off the Columbia River, Oregon, and California; 2) Oregon coastal hatchery returns; and 3) the inriver gillnet catch, Bonneville Dam counts, and hatchery returns to the Columbia River below Bonneville Dam. OPIH Oregon production index (hatchery) OPITT Oregon Production Index Technical Team Optimum yield See OY. OSP Optimum sustainable production OTC Oregon Trawl Commission Overhead A measure the Council uses to distinguish between cumulative limit management and individual quota management. Overhead is the amount by which the allocation of a fishery would be exceeded if every vessel took the available cumulative limit. It is expressed as a percentage of the allocation. For example, for the modified derby of the fixed gear sablefish fishery, the Council has tried to maintain an overhead of 25% to distinguish the cumulative limit management system from an individual quota management system. Overfishing A level or rate of fishing mortality that threatens the long- term capacity of a stock or complex to produce the maximum sustained yield on a continuing basis. OY Optimum yield. The amount of fish that will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems. The OY is developed on the basis of the Maximum Sustained Yield from the fishery, taking into account relevant economic, social, and ecological factors. In the case of overfished fisheries, the OY provides for rebuilding to a level that is consistent with producing the Maximum Sustained Yield for the fishery.
PacFIN Pacific Coast Fisheries Information Network. Provides commercial fishery information for Washington, Oregon, and California. Maintained by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. PALCO Pacific Lumber Company Pan-pacific Throughout the entire Pacific region. PBR Potential biological removal. The maximum number of animals, not including natural mortalities, that may be removed from a marine mammal stock while allowing that stock to reach or maintain its optimum sustainable population. (U.S. Code) PCFFA Pacific Coast Federation of Fishermen's Associations PDT Plan Development Team. A team of scientists and professionals tasked with organizing a fishery management plan. PEF Production expansion factors PEIS Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (see EIS) Pelagic Inhabiting the water column as opposed to being associated with the sea floor; generally occurring anywhere from the surface to 1000 meters (547 fm). See also epipelagic and mesopelagic. Permit cumulative limit A cumulative limit that applies to a permit rather than to a vessel. Permit stacking The registration of more than one limited entry permit for a single vessel, where a vessel is allowed additional catch for each additional permit registered for use with the vessel. PFMC Pacific Fishery Management Council PGP Programmatic general permit POCTRT Pacific Offshore Cetacean Take Reduction Team POP Pacific Ocean perch PRA Paperwork Reduction Act PRIH Oregon coastal private hatchery (adult coho) Processing The preparation or packaging of fish to render it suitable for human consumption, retail sale, industrial uses, or long-term storage, including but not limited to cooking, canning, smoking, salting, drying, filleting, freezing, or rendering into meal or oil, but not heading and gutting unless additional preparation is done. PSC Pacific Salmon Commission. The "Sockeye Commission" (located in New Westminster, B.C.) was created in 1930 by the Convention for the Protection, Preservation, and Extension of the Sockeye Salmon Fishery of the Fraser River. Its original purpose was to investigate the causes for the post-1913 decline of the Fraser River sockeye salmon fishery. The Sockeye Commission made regulatory proposals for the first time in 1946 to ensure adequate escapement of salmon to the spawning grounds and to divide the catch equally between the U.S. and Canada. This was later extended to cover pink salmon as well. Each national section is composed of three commissioners. Two Council members usually serve as commissioners on the Pacific Salmon Commission. PSMFC Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. Created in 1947, the PSMFC is a non-regulatory agency that serves five member states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. PSMFC (headquartered in Portland) provides a communication exchange between the Pacific Fishery Management Council and the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, and a mechanism for federal funding of regional fishery projects. The PSMFC plays an advisory role for state fisheries; and provides information in the form of data services for various fisheries. PSMFC's executive director is a non-voting member of the Pacific Fishery Management Council and the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. PSTA Pacific Salmon Treaty Act of 1985
QS Quota share(s). A share of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) allocated to an operating unit such as a country, a vessel, a company or an individual fisherman (individual quota) depending on the system of allocation. Quotas may or may not be transferable, inheritable, and tradable. While generally used to allocate total allowable catch, quotas could be used also to allocate fishing effort or biomass. QSM Quota species monitoring. A monitoring method used by PacFIN (see above). The Quota Species Monitoring subsystem was largely initiated at the request of the fishing industry, which needed timely information regarding the cumulative catch of the groundfish species regulated by annual quotas (e.g., widow rockfish and sablefish). Quota shares See QS
Register With respect to a vessel, a particular permit is registered for use with a particular vessel when NMFS acknowledges the designation of the vessel for use with the permit. Riparian area A land area adjacent to water. Technical definition: "riparian area" means an area of land that (a) is adjacent to a stream, river, lake or wetland, and (b) contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas. (Code of British Columbia) RCA Riparian conservation area RD Regional Director. Usually, the Regional Director of the National Marine Fisheries Service. RecFin Recreational Fishery Information Network RFA Regulatory Flexibility Analysis. Anytime an agency publishes a notice of proposed rule making, an RFA is required. It describes the action, why it is necessary, the objectives and legal basis for the action, a description of who will be impacted by the action, and a description of the projected reporting, record-keeping, and other compliance requirements of the proposed rule. The types of entities subject to the rule, and the professional skills required to prepare the report or record, must also be described. RFA Recreational Fishing Alliance. An East Coast based trade/recreational angler association with a California chapter based out of Los Angeles. The RFA Mission is: "To create a national grass roots, political action organization of one million (1,000,000) salt water anglers; safeguard the rights of those salt water anglers; protect jobs in the marine boat and tackle industries; and ensure the long-term sustainability of our nations salt water fisheries." RIR Regulatory Impact Statement. RIRs are prepared to determine whether a proposed regulatory action is "major." The RIR examines alternative management measures and their economic impacts. R/K Rogue/Klamath (coho) rkm River-kilometer RMO Riparian management objectives R/S Recruits per spawner
S.200 Senate Bill 200 SAC Sportfishing Association of California. An association representing CPFV's and landings in Southern California. SAC Sanctuary Advisory Council. A Channel Islands Sanctuary local advisory Group. SAFE Stock assessment and fishery evaluation. A report that provides a summary of the best available scientific information on the condition of stocks, marine ecosystems, and fisheries being managed under federal regulation. SAS Salmon Advisory Subpanel. The Council established the SAS to obtain advise and counsel by the people who are most affected by, and interested in, salmon management. Their advice is used in the preparation and review of fishery management plans. SAS members serve two-year terms. SBA Small Business Administration SCB Southern California Bight SCH Spring Creek Hatchery (tule fall chinook returning to Spring Creek Hatchery) SCTB Standing Committee on Tuna and Billfish SDC Status determination criteria Secretary U.S. Secretary of Commerce SEIS Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (see EIS) SFA Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 (also known as the Magnuson-Stevens Act) SFO Sustainable Fisheries Office SIA Social impact analysis SIC Standard Industrial Classifications S-K Saltonstall-Kennedy. The S-K Act allocates 30% of the duties for imported fishery products to technological, biological, marketing, and other research and services in order to promote the free flow of domestically-produced fishery products and to develop markets for domestic fishery products. SOC Secretary of Commerce. The Secretary has responsibility for reviewing, approving, and implementing a fishery management plan. SOPP Statement of Organization, Practices and Procedures. A public document that describes how each Council carries out its activities under the Magnuson Act. SPDT Salmon Plan Development Team. Salmon fishery management plans are prepared by the Council's SPDT, which consists of scientists with specific knowledge of the salmon fishery. SPTT South Pacific Tuna Treaty SRFI Snake River fall chinook index SRS Stratified random sampling SRW Sacramento River winter (chinook) SSC Scientific and Statistical Committee A committee of the PFMC. The Magnuson Act requires that each council maintain an SSC to assist in gathering and analyzing statistical, biological, ecological, economic, social, and other scientific information that is relevant to the development of fishery management plans. SST Sea surface temperature STAR Stock assessment review STAR Panel Stock Assessment Review Panel STAT Stock Assessment Team STEP Salmon Trout Enhancement Program (Oregon) STT Salmon Technical Team (a committee of the PFMC) SWFSC Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS) SWR Southwest Region
TAC Total allowable catch TALFF Total allowable level of foreign fishing. TALFF is that portion of the optimum yield which will not be harvested by U.S. vessels. The foreign allowable catch is determined by deducting the expected domestic annual harvest and reserve from the optimum yield (TALFF = OY- [DAH + reserve]). TES Threatened & Endangered Species TIN Tax identification number TMDL Total maximum daily load. The amount of pollutant that a water body can receive and still meet water quality standards. Total catch OY Total catch optimum yield. The landed catch plus discard mortality. TRH Trinity River Hatchery TRP Take Reduction Plan. A plan to reduce injuries and deaths of marine mammals caused by fishing operations. TRT Take Reduction Team
UASC United Anglers of Southern California. A volunteer organization dedicated to management of the marine resource. The mission of UASC is: "United Anglers of Southern California is a non-profit organization made up of volunteers dedicated to the management of marine resources in order to pass the sport of fishing on to future generations." UNIA United Nations Implementing Agreement on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks URB Upper river brights (bright fall chinook originating primarily above McNary Dam) USC United States Code USCG U.S. Coast Guard USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USFS U.S. Forest Service USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USGS U.S. Geological Survey
VMS Vessel Monitoring System VPA Virtual population analysis VSI Virtual stock identification
WCVI West Coast Vancouver Island WDFW Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife WFMP Willamette Fish Management Plan WFOA Western Fishboat Owners Association WOC Washington, Oregon and California WPRFMC Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council
YPR Yield per recruit. A model that estimates yield in terms of weight, but more often as a percentage of the maximum sustainable yield, for various combinations of natural mortality, fishing mortality and time exposed to the fishery. (NOAA)
ZMRG Zero mortality rate goal. A goal stated in the Marine Mammal Protection Act that the "incidental kill or incidental serious injury of marine mammals permitted in the course of commercial fishing operations be reduced to insignificant levels approaching a zero mortality and serious injury rate."